An overview of traditional ethical theories leadership. Ethics or morality and well use these terms interchangeably is the broader arena in which any special set of. Since, according to the utilitarians, the business of morality is the maximi zation of the good, the other animals plainly fall within its. As any other theory it provides explanation and understanding. Utilitarianism, kantian ethics, natural rights theories, and religious ethics a utilitarian argument, in the strict sense, is one what alleges that we ought to do something because it will produce more total happiness than doing anything else would. Form and content in ethical theory wilfrid sellars i i. The ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the welldefined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights, rules, benefit to society, fairness, etc. Theories of ethics center for future consciousness. Use two ethical theories to discuss how problems in ethics, production, and marketing should be addressed on a systemic level to ensure appropriate corporate oversightby consumers, manufacturers, the government, and the free market. It is ethical theory proposed by jeremy bentham and james mill that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness good for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism john stuart mill 18061873, viewed as one of the chief architects of utilitarianism, argued that the correctness of actions should be judged by their consequences i. Ethical relativism holds that there is no correct moral code at all times and peoples, that each group has its own morality relative to its wants and values, and that at all moral ideas are relative to particular culture. Two kinds of duty ethics 2 consequentialist resultsbased. George lakoff and mark johnson on morality, metaphor, and imagination ii.
An overview of ethical theory mesa community college. This category may require frequent maintenance to avoid becoming too large. Ethical theory ethics 2 a weak criticism of consequentialism. The theoretical study of ethics is not normally something that many people. Pages in this category should be moved to subcategories where applicable. Deontological ethics stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. However, when ethical theories are combined, they can help us to arrive at the most ethically correct answer possible for each scenario. Conversely, there are usually benefits accrued by proper uses of information technology i. There have been many different theories posited in ethics, for example, virtue ethics, deontology, consequentialism, egalitarianism, libertarianism, social contract theory, stakeholder theory, human rights theory, and postmodernism. Should i help my colleague out with getting the report in on time, even though id rather leave. The aim of ethical theories is, among other things, to present and defend systematic answers to the two following questions. A weakness associated with this theory is the lack of concern for the consequences of actions.
Theory and practice in interprofessional ethics 595 responsibility for developing standards of pr ofessional practice that form the basis for relationships with the oth er membe rs of the team. On ethical theory in auditing on ethical theory in auditing lutz preuss 19981201 00. One area that should be considered when planning an ethics courses is a philosophical basis for decisions and ethical theories. Universal truths, gods will, the meaning of ethical terms and how reason plays a role in ethical decisions are all a part of metaethics. Ethical theories managerial decisionmaking tools and ethical theories a critical analysis of kants ethical theory. Forum about ethics and responsibility discussions about ethics and responsibility. Ethics four branches 3 metaethics the study of ethical terms, statements and judgements. Pdf ethics and ethical theories from an islamic perspective. The categorical imperative is the way in which you determine what your duties are, what you should and should not do. It should directly contain very few, if any, pages and should mainly contain subcategories. Human beings are, however, another story entirely, according to kant, humans may never be used anything else.
Like kantian ethics, discourse ethics is a cognitive ethical theory, in that it supposes that truth and falsity can be attributed to ethical propositions. Introduction to ethical studies an open source reader lee archie john g. It addresses the meaning of ethical terms such as right, duty, obligation, justification, morality, responsibility. Next is the more practical theory of normative ethics. Tests of an ethical theory tested against conventional morality if it seriously contradicts it in many places, it is questionably correct corrects conventional morality makes it consistent and coherent supplements conventional morality where intuition fails, e. He even went so far as to suggest that this is the ultimate law of morality. Applies the ethical procedure to two relevant cases, arriving at the correct, moral solution for that particular theory. The good will intentions count and the only intention that counts is the good will. In other words, deontology falls within the domain of moral theories that. The ethical theory of virtue states that we can judge a persons decisions based on his or her character and morality.
Ethical relativism is a theory of ethics that allows the moral decision making process to be more flexible by giving a person the option to take into consideration more than just a set list of concrete rules. Ethical theories ethical theory is means by which we justify a particular ethical decision. In virtue ethical theory, an individual is judged by his character rather than by his actions that may deviate from his normal behavior fraedrich, ferrel and ferrel, 2009. Greatest happiness principle maximizing positive outcomes for the largest number of. Avoidance of punishment and deference to power are typical of this stage. Ethical theories direct selling education foundation. Introduction to ethical theories essay 1155 words bartleby.
Theories of ethics thomas lombardo within human history and continuing into present times, we. Every day, you probably make dozens or even hundreds of decisions about what could be considered ethical issues. As an editorial priority, however, presentations should be accessible to the philosophical community at large. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical.
The ethical and moral issues voters frequently take into account are as follows. Eight theories of ethics by gordon graham, 2004 online. The way someone lives his or her life can explain any ethical decision according to this theory. Discuss systems of moral reasoning as they have been used throughout history. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general. Codes of ethics are very important in this context but are in the final analysis insufficient devices, because their necessarily generalised form has to be translated into the specific situation and thus requires. Mill what makes something good or bad, right or wrong, is that it produces the greatest amount of pleasure or lack of pain for the greatest number of people basic principle. The development of cybernetics and digital computers prompted the need for a greater exploration of computer ethics.
For example, a person who lies and cheats to get ahead in life probably makes decisions based on advancing his or her own. For individuals, the ethical theory they employ for decision making guidance emphasizes aspects of an ethical dilemma important to them and leads them to the most ethically correct resolution according to the guidelines within the ethical theory itself. The ethical theory described is an approach or belief based off ones own morals or values. Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. The idea of the application of an ethical theory to a concrete issue should be understood as having a threesided relationship. Ethics is the study of conduct in regard to its moral rightness or wrongness. It welcomes high quality submissions regardless of the tradition or school of thought from which they derive.
Here are five questions we might want an ethical theory to answer for us. If the action results in the greatest good for the greatest number of people consequential, then the utilitarian would argue that it is the right action to take. The focal point of practical reasoning is action, as the focal point of empirical reasoning is observation. Wikimedia commons has media related to ethical theories. Because deontological theories are best understood in contrast to. Perceptual takings or judgments are the thoughts which typically arise from the impact of the world on our mind through our sensory capacities. Evaluate a variety of ethical theories and approaches to use in personal and. Aggregative consequentialist theories are threatened by infinitarian paralysis. Ethical theories used to justify angloamericans obligation to the ethical issue in chilean mines 2. You should not regard this as a substitute for buying the book, but it may be a useful resource sometime when you want to check something in. It also formulates a rule by which ethical actions can be determined and proposes that ethical actions should be universalisable, in a similar way to kants ethics. The field of organization theory does not engage in ethical theories and hardly acknowledges that ethical leaders can have a significant role. Such theories arise in religion, spiritual traditions, philosophy, socialpoliticalhistorical systems, literature and the humanities, social.
In this section of the paper, you should explain which ethical theory you think presents the most persuasive moral argument on this question and why. To study the users ethics in using service through the online social network sites. Analysis of the language, concepts and methods of resoning in ethics. Some theoretical issues valon lluka, mba banka ekonomike, prishtina abstract ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values.
This section of the paper should be approximately to 1200 words 500 to 600 words for each theory application. Ethical theory burkhardt chapter 2 ethical theory morality personal morality. Develops an ethical procedure based on a theorys moral rules and principles. One ethical theory might be more adequate than others, depending on the exact aims of the empiricalethical research project.
However, we should be mindful that all theories have flaws or failings. Four of these goals include beneficence, least harm, respect for autonomy, and justice. The normative background of empiricalethical research. Many ethical theories play into elections, on both the sides of the voters as well as the candidates.
Normative ethics the systematicphilosophical justification of moral intuitions teleological or, consequentialism rightness is determined by the consequences of an action hedonism egoism utilitarianism deontological rightness is an intrinsic feature of some actions natural law. Ethical theory university of maryland, college park. This theory addresses the origin and definition of peoples ethical principles. Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance.
On this type of ethical theory an action motivated by the right sorts of reasons will be right no matter whether its consequences are. They include the stockholder theory, the stakeholder theory and the socialcontract theory. On ethical theory in auditing, managerial auditing journal. Social darwinism fear of extinction and the urgency of financial survival dictate ethical conduct. In an effort to establish some ethical guidelines for business, three normative ethical theories have evolved in western capitalist societies. In any case, there is no requirement that ones ethical theory be based on a single principle. In fact, it seems to outgrow a transcendental philosophy, since it. Ethical theories two types of ethical theories i teleological theories value based theories an act is morally right if it promotes the good or what has value. Print out the chart of basic approaches to ethical theory from my website which. Pdf theory and practice in interprofessional ethics.
Ethics, ethical theories, islam, alquran, alsunnah the word ethics orig inates from the greek word ethos, which m eans character, spirit and attitude of a group of. Utilitarianism, kantian ethics, natural rights theories. Project part 1 an introduction to ethical theories itt technical institute, hanover md mathew leetch hu4640 ethics july 22, 2015 an introduction to ethical theories abstract this paper is going to discuss ethics and ethical theories. Act utilitarianism au is the moral theory that holds that the morally right action, the act. Should i do the washingup even though i am tired so my partner doesnt have to. Four broad categories of ethical theory include deontology, utilitarianism, rights, and virtues. The choice between consequentialist and kantian ethics is a dif. Ive had the ku computer folks set up an email distribution list for the course, and its address is the following. Thus i n kants view, mere animals have no importance at all.840 1258 815 1314 382 1528 253 1051 1050 477 1347 374 359 66 1423 1323 915 695 847 1136 221 306 355 234 875 1147 254 1482 1222 671 813 464 1161 20 1249 286 565 873